The agnomen Germanicus was added to his full name in 9 BC when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honor of his victories in Germania. As a result, Germanicus was adopted out of the Claudii and into the Julii. Nonetheless, this did not take away from the spectacle of his triumph: a near contemporary calendar marks 26 May as the day in "which Germanicus Caesar was borne into the city in triumph", while coins issued under his son Gaius (Caligula) depicted him on a triumphal chariot, with the reverse reading "Standards Recovered. December 2020 The mood of the masses is a recurring theme, with their reactions to the fortunes of Germanicus being a prominent feature of the relationship between him and Tiberius well into the Annals (as far as Annals 3.19). [46][47], The sight of the Roman trophy constructed on the battlefield enraged the Germans who were preparing to retreat beyond the Elbe, and they launched an attack on the Roman positions at the Angrivarian Wall, thus beginning a second battle. [87], Suetonius was an equestrian who held administrative posts during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian. The fighting lasted for two days, with neither side achieving a decisive victory. He restored a temple of Spes,[58] and allegedly won a chariot race in the name of Tiberius at the Olympic games that year. The retreat from the region however was very difficult and his legions suffered high losses due to further attacks by Germanic troops. Germanicus commanded eight legions with Gallic and Germanic auxiliary units overland across the Rhine, up the Ems and Weser rivers as part of his last major campaign against Arminius in AD 16. In 16 AD the Emperor Tiberius recalled Germanicus because he believed that further efforts to subdue Germania were futile.On the 26 May 17 AD Germanicus celebrated his  triumph in Rome. Segestes was a nobleman of the Germanic tribe of the Cherusci involved in the events surrounding the Roman attempts to conquer northern Germany during the reign of Roman Emperor Augustus. On the other side, pro-Roman Cherusci, like Segestes, the father of Thusnelda and Segimuntos, were among the invited guests of the event. This victory, combined with the fact that winter was fast approaching, meant Germanicus's next step was to lead his army back to its winter quarters on the Rhine. The Battle of Idistaviso, sometimes known as a first Battle of Minden or Battle of the Weser River, was fought in 16 AD between Roman legions commanded by Roman emperor Tiberius' heir and adopted son Germanicus, and an alliance of Germanic peoples commanded by Arminius. Germanicus coordinated a land and riverine offensive, with troops marching eastward across the Rhine, and sailing from the North Sea up the Ems River in order to attack the Bructeri and Cherusci. CVV Germanicus. During the reign of Augustus, Germanicus enjoyed an accelerated political career as the heir of the emperor's heir, entering the office of quaestor five years before the legal age in AD 7. A fort on the Lippe called Castra Aliso was besieged, but the attackers dispersed on sight of Roman reinforcements. Sometime this year, he received word from Segestes, who was held prisoner by Arminius' forces and needed help. The Romans also began to drive the rebels out of the countryside, offering amnesty to those tribes that would lay down their arms, and implemented a scorched earth policy in an effort to starve the enemy out. the enemy were slaughtered from the fifth hour of daylight to nightfall, and for ten miles the ground was littered with corpses and weapons. November 2020 As well as being the great-nephew of Augustus, he was the nephew of the second emperor, Tiberius, his son Gaius would become the third emperor, Caligula, who would be succeeded by Germanicus' brother Claudius, and his grandson would become the fifth emperor, Nero. 23. Tacitus described Germanicus as a fine general who was kind and temperate, saying that his early death had taken a great ruler from Rome. [53] However, the campaign significantly healed the Roman psychological trauma from the Varus disaster, and greatly recovered Roman prestige. Arminius, however, favored by the marshy ground, was able to hold his own, and it required another campaign before he was finally defeated. Due to his prominence as heir to the imperial succession, he is depicted in many works of art. Germanicus pursued a career as a military officer. [3] He took the agnomen Germanicus, awarded posthumously to his father in honor of his victories in Germania, at which point he nominally became head of the family in 9 BC. [80][81], The accusations brought against Piso are numerous, including:[82][note 8], He was found guilty and punished posthumously for the crime of treason. His open and affable manners made him popular with the soldiers, but he remained loyal to the emperor. That day the Senate also dispatched a delegation to Germanicus' camp to send its condolences for the death of his grandfather and to grant him proconsular imperium. The continued support of the Pisones and his own friendship to Piso made Tiberius hesitant to hear the case himself. [28] They had not been paid the bonuses promised them by Augustus and, when it became clear a response from Tiberius was not forthcoming, they revolted. He was able to bury the soldiers’ mortal remains which were still lying around. The year after, he was made proconsul of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior, and all of Gaul. He sacked their capital Mattium (modern Maden near Gudensberg), pillaged their countryside, then returned to the Rhine. Unlike his adoptive brother Drusus, who received no recognition beyond being the son of a triumphator, Germanicus played a distinguished part in the celebration and was given the opportunity to display his consular insignia and triumphal ornaments. It was far from clear that Germanicus had won the war. [71], When Rome had received word of Germanicus' death, the people began observing a iustitium before the Senate had officially declared it. [note 7] Germanicus entered the province in his capacity as proconsul without first seeking permission to do so. He arrived at Nicopolis near the site of the Battle of Actium, where he took up his second consulship on 18 January AD 18. In AD 17 he returned to Rome where he received a triumph before leaving to reorganize the provinces of Asia Minor, whereby he incorporated the provinces of Cappadocia and Commagene in AD 18. "[56], His triumph included a long procession of captives including the wife of Arminius, Thusnelda, and her three-year-old son, among others of the defeated German tribes. He was the grandson of Livia, the second wife of Augustus, and the Emperor’s grandnephew. [1] To the Roman people, Germanicus was the Roman equivalent of Alexander the Great due to the nature of his death at a young age, his virtuous character, his dashing physique, and his military renown. As accusations accumulated, it was not long before the well known accuser, Lucius Fulcinius Trio, brought charges against him. From a German deserter, Germanicus also learned that Arminius had set another trap for him, hoping to lure the Romans to the barrier. Eine Jahresbilanz – mit und trotz Corona, 26. After Germanicus arrived, the soldiers listed their complaints to him and attempted to proclaim him emperor. The endurance of the Principate is challenged in these narratives, by the emperor's jealous trepidation toward competent commanders such as Germanicus. The revenue from the new province was enough to make up the difference lost from lowering the sales tax. As part of the succession arrangements, Augustus adopted Tiberius on 26 June AD 4, but first required him to adopt Germanicus, thus placing him next in the line of succession after Tiberius. [16][14], Roman forces took the initiative in AD 9, and pushed into Dalmatia. The arch of the Rhine was placed alongside of that of his father, where the soldiers had built a funerary monument honoring him. It was here at the barrier that Arminius planned to defeat Germanicus Caesar. He avenged the Roman Empire's defeat in the Teutoburg Forest and retrieved two of the three legionary eagles that had been lost during the battle. Germanicus in turn ordered Piso's recall to Rome, although this action was probably beyond his authority. Germans Defeated. Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a popular and prominent general of the Roman Empire, known for his campaigns in Germania. Like Tacitus, he drew upon the imperial archives, as well as histories by Aufidius Bassus, Cluvius Rufus, Fabius Rusticus and Augustus' own letters. Immediately Germanicus despatched troops to recover it. Portraits of him and his natural father were placed in the Temple of Apollo on the Palatine in Rome. [50][51], Germanicus' successes in Germany had made him popular with the soldiers. Der "Block-Blog" - Teil 3: Dokumentation, VARUSSCHLACHT im Osnabrücker LandgGmbH – Museum und Park Kalkriese, Venner Straße 69D-49565 Bramsche-Kalkriese, Tel. In order to ensure the line of succession, Augustus requested that Tiberius adopted Germanicus - who was the Emperor’s adopted stepson. Germanicus dealt with the troops in Germania, and Tiberius' son Drusus dealt with Illyricum. [2], Germanicus' praenomen is unknown, but he was probably named Nero Claudius Drusus after his father (conventionally called "Drusus"), or possibly Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. Commemorative arches were built in his honor and not just at Rome, but at the frontier on the Rhine and in Asia where he had governed in life. [85] For his work, Germanicus is ranked among Roman writers on astronomy, and his work was popular enough for scholia to be written on it well into the Medieval era. [78] Many Romans, in the account of Tacitus, considered Germanicus to be their equivalent to Alexander the Great, and believed that he would have easily surpassed the achievements of Alexander had he become emperor. Arminius initially lured Germanicus' cavalry into a trap and inflicted minor casualties, until successful fighting by the Roman infantry caused the Germans to break and flee into the forest. This was nullified when Bato the Breucian was defeated in battle and subsequently executed by his former ally Bato the Daesitiate, but this left the Pannonians divided against each other, and the Romans were able to subdue the Breuci without battle. He shared the consulship with Gaius Fonteius Capito. [66] His death aroused much speculation, with several sources blaming Piso, acting under orders from Emperor Tiberius. In Germany, the legions in mutiny were those of the Lower Rhine under Aulus Caecina (the V Alaudae, XXI Rapax, I Germanica, and XX Valeria Victrix). The army of the Lower Rhine was stationed in summer quarters on the border of the Ubii. Arminius, the Cheruscan noble and military leader, had married Thusnelda, Segestes' daughter, against her … "Arminius" is probably a Latinized variant of the Proto-Germanic *erminaz (Irmin) meaning "great" (cf. Nevertheless, Germanicus was able to recapture two of the legions’ aquilas which had been seized by Germanic troops during the Varus Battle. Augustus therefore forced Tiberius to adopt Germanicus. There, Germanicus and some of his men visited the site of the disastrous Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, and began burying the remains of the Roman soldiers that had been left in the open. [40] Germanicus' forces went through Bructeri territory, where a general, Lucius Stertinius, recovered the lost eagle of the XIX Legion from among the equipment of the Bructeri after routing them in battle. The king of Cappadocia died too, whereupon Germanicus sent Quintus Veranius to organize Cappadocia as a province – a profitable endeavor as Tiberius was able to reduce the sales tax down to .5% from 1%. The two generals crossed the Rhine, made various excursions into enemy territory and, in the beginning of autumn, recrossed the river. The effort it would have taken to conquer Germania Magna was deemed too great when compared with the low potential for profit from acquiring the new territory. Arminius and his uncle Inguiomer were both wounded in the battle but evaded capture. As proconsul, Germanicus was dispatched with Tiberius to defend the empire against the Germans in AD 11. They destroyed a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Attention is paid particularly to their leadership styles, i.e., in their relationship with the masses. The story is told by the Roman historian Tacitus. Germanicus took his legions by ship from Mainz to the river Ems, and from there to the site of the Varus Battle. Germanicus then led his troops to the site of the Teutoburg massacre where he gathered up the remains of those who had been killed in 9 CE and buried them with honors. He sailed down the Illyrian coast of the Adriatic Sea to Greece. [26][27], On 23 October AD 12, Tiberius held a triumph for his victory over the Pannonians and Dalmatians, which he had postponed on account of the defeat of Varus at Teutoburg Forest. Germanicus wenst u allen een gelukkig, sportief en gezond 2021 toe!! [92] His life and character have been portrayed in many works of art, the most notable of which include: First campaign against the Germanic tribes, Second campaign against the Germanic tribes, Third campaign against the Germanic tribes, Tiberius had to adopt Germanicus first because his own adoption by Augustus resulted in the loss of, Tacitus claims that the Romans won the battle at, Captives featured in the triumph include: "Segimuntus, the son of Segestes, the chief of the Cherusci, and his sister, named Thusnelda, the wife of Armenius, who led on the Cherusci when they treacherously attacked Quintilius Varus, and even to this day continues the war; likewise his son Thumelicus, a boy three years old, as also Sesithacus, the son of, That he violated this order is possibly confirmed by the fact that the trip is omitted in Germanicus', Despite the exhaustive list only two statutes are mentioned: that of Piso violating Germanicus', "Archaeological Traces of the Pannonian Revolt 6–9 AD:Evidence and Conjectures", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Germanicus&oldid=999385188, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, After 20 years of service, a full discharge was given, but after 16 years an immunity from military tasks, except to take part in actions (. His maternal grandparents were the triumvir Mark Antony and Augustus' sister Octavia Minor. The Roman forces under Tiberius and Germanicus pursued Bato to the fortress of Andretium near Salona, to which they laid siege. Germanicus was born in Rome in 15 BC. From there he commanded eight legions, about one-third of the entire Roman army, which he led against the Germanic tribes in his campaigns from AD 14 to 16. Privacy Statement Germanicus is painted as a competent leader able to handle the masses whereas Tiberius is indecisive and envious. He fought against the Pannonians under Tiberius, quelled the mutiny in the Rhine, and led three successful campaigns into Germania. [42] He made his way into the heartland of the Cherusci. However, Eusebius, our main reference for this, does not name Germanicus, and Tacitus makes no reference to this occasion either, which would have required Germanicus to make two trips to Greece within a year. [28][39], Arminius called his tribe, the Cherusci, and the surrounding tribes to arms. [2] In book eight of his Natural History, Pliny connects Germanicus, Augustus, and Alexander as fellow equestrians: when Alexander's horse Bucephalus died he named a city, Bucephalia, in his honor. [7] Germanicus was a key figure in Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. The victorious Romans then raised a mound with the inscription: "The army of Tiberius Caesar, after thoroughly conquering the tribes between the Rhine and the Elbe, has dedicated this monument to Mars, Jupiter, and Augustus. Livia persuaded him to choose Tiberius, his stepson from Livia's first marriage to Tiberius Claudius Nero, instead. His forces met those of Arminius on the plains of Idistaviso, by the Weser River near modern Rinteln, in an engagement called the Battle of the Weser River. Tacitus reports that there were signs of black magic in Piso's house with hidden body-parts and Germanicus' name inscribed on lead tablets. Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a popular and prominent general of the Roman Empire, known for his campaigns in Germania.The son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia the Younger, Germanicus was born into an influential branch of the patrician gens Claudia. Later in the year, Tiberius left Lepidus in command of Siscia and Silvanus at Sirmium. After half a day of the work, he called off the burial of bones so that they could continue their war against the Germans. The divisions under Lepidus and Silvanus practically exterminated the Perustae and Daesitiate in their mountain strongholds. He was able to unite a group of Germanic tribes together to fight the Romans. Then Germanicus returned to Mainz together with Segestes and his resisting daughter Thusnelda, Arminius’ wife. [14][15], The rebel position in Pannonia collapsed in AD 8 when one of their commanders, Bato the Breucian, surrendered their leader Pinnes to the Romans and laid down his arms in return for amnesty. The oldest was named Germanicus and died young. [79], Piso was rumored to have been responsible for his death. The Roman soldiers involved on the battlefield honored Tiberius as Imperator, and raised a pile of arms as a trophy with the names of the defeated tribes inscribed beneath them. Germanicus commanded the Roman forces on the northern frontier and was popular with the legions and people. There were abundant eulogies and reminders of his fine character and a particular eulogy was given by Tiberius himself in the Senate. New barriers and earthworks were put in place, securing the area between Fort Aliso and the Rhine. His nephew toward Germanicus ' campaigns against the Germans the Temple of Claros! Massacred the villages of the Lower and Upper Rhine had returned to by. 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